You can find other overviews of my work in my CV or on Google Scholar.

SM = Supplementary Materials; * = shared first authorship.

Several articles contain open data, which you can find here.


  • Fried, Papanikolaou & Epskamp (2020). Mental Health and Social Contact During the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study. Submitted to Clinical Psychological Science. PDF, SM.
  • Robinaugh et al. (2020). Invisible Hands and Fine Calipers: A Call to Use Formal Theory as a Toolkit for Theory Construction. Submitted to Perspectives of Psychological Science. PDF.
  • Teague, Robinaugh & Fried (2020). On the control of psychological networks. Under revision at Psychometrika. PDF.
  • Robinaugh et al. (2019). Advancing the Network Theory of Mental Disorders: A Computational Model of Panic Disorder. Submitted to Psychological Review. PDF.

Peer-reviewed publications

First author

  • Fried (2021). Lack of theory building and testing impedes progress in the factor and network literature. Psychological Inquiry. PDF.
  • Fried (2021). Theories and Models: What They Are, What They Are for, and What They Are About. Psychological Inquiry. PDF.
  • Fried*, Greene* & Eaton (2021). The p factor is the sum of its parts, for now. World Psychiatry. PDF.
  • Flake & Fried* (2020). Measurement Schmeasurement: Questionable Measurement Practices and How to Avoid Them. Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science. PDF.
  • Fried & Robinaugh (2020). Systems all the way down: embracing complexity in mental health research. BMC Medicine. PDF.
  • Patalay & Fried* (2020). Prescribing measures: Unintended negative consequences of mandating standardized mental health measurement. Submitted to Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. PDF.
  • Fried, Coomans & Lorenzo-Luaces (2020). The 341737 ways of qualifying for the melancholic specifier. Lancet Psychiatry. PDF, SM. [Feyaerts & Thornton wrote a commentary on our piece; here is our rejoinder]
  • Fried, van Borkulo & Epskamp (2020). On the Importance of Estimating Parameter Uncertainty in Network Psychometrics: A Response to Forbes et al. (2019). Multivariate Behavioral Research. PDF.
  • Fried et al. (2019). Using network analysis to examine links between individual depressive symptoms, inflammatory markers, and covariates. Psychological Medicine. PDF, SM.
  • Fried et al. (2018). Replicability and generalizability of PTSD networks: A cross-cultural multisite study of PTSD symptoms in four trauma patient samples. Clinical Psychological Science. PDF, SM.
  • Fried & Cramer (2017). Moving forward: challenges and directions for psychopathological network theory and methodology. Perspectives on Psychological Science. PDF, SM.
  • Fried (2017). The 52 symptoms of major depression: lack of content overlap among seven common depression scales. Journal of Affective Disorders. PDF, SM, Correction.
  • Fried (2017). What are psychological constructs? On the nature and statistical modelling of emotions, intelligence, personality traits and mental disorders. Health Psychology Review. PDF, SM.
  • Fried (2017). Moving forward: how depression heterogeneity hinders progress in treatment and research. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. PDF.
  • Fried, van Borkulo*, et al. (2017). Mental disorders as networks of problems: a review of recent insights. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. PDF, SM.
  • Armour, Fried* et al. (2017). A Network Analysis of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and correlates in U.S. military veterans. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. PDF, SM.
  • Armour, Fried*, & Olff (2017). PTSD symptomics: network analyses in the field of psychotraumatology. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, PDF.
  • Fried (2016). Are more responsive depression scales really superior depression scales? Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. PDF.
  • Fried et al. (2016). Measuring Depression over Time … or not? Lack of Unidimensionality and Longitudinal Measurement Invariance in Four Common Rating Scales of Depression. Psychological Assessment. PDF, SM.
  • Fried et al. (2016). What are ‘good’ depression symptoms? Comparing the centrality of DSM and non-DSM symptoms of depression in a network analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders. PDF, SM, Syntax.
  • Fried & Kievit (2016). The volumes of subcortical regions in depressed and healthy individuals are strikingly similar: A reinterpretation of the results by Schmaal et al. Molecular Psychiatry. PDF, SM.
  • Rhemtulla, Fried* et al. (2016). Network analysis of substance abuse and dependence symptoms. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. PDF, SM1, SM2.
  • Fried (2015). Problematic assumptions have slowed down depression research: why symptoms, not syndromes are the way forward. Frontiers in Psychology. PDF.
  • Fried & Nesse (2015). Depression sum-scores don’t add up: Why analyzing specific depression symptoms is essential. BMC Medicine. PDF.
  • Fried & Nesse (2015). Depression is not a consistent syndrome: an investigation of unique symptom patterns in the STAR*D study. Journal of Affective Disorders. PDF.
  • Fried et al. (2015). The differential influence of life stress on individual symptoms of depression. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. PDF.
  • Fried et al. (2015). From Loss to Loneliness: The Relationship Between Bereavement and Depressive Symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. PDF, SM.
  • Fried et al. (2015). Symptomics as a new research paradigm in psychiatry. Frontiers in Psychiatry. PDF, SM.
  • Fried, Tuerlinckx & Borsboom, D. (2014). Mental health: more than neurobiology. Nature. PDF.
  • Fried & Nesse (2014). The Impact of Individual Depressive Symptoms on Impairment of Psychosocial Functioning. PLoS ONE. PDF.
  • Fried et al. (2014). Depression is more than the sum score of its parts: individual DSM symptoms have different risk factors. Psychological Medicine. PDF.

Last author

  • Cai, Choi & Fried (2020). Reviewing the genetics of heterogeneity in depression: Operationalizations, manifestations, and etiologies. Human molecular genetics. PDF.
  • Burger et al. (2020). Bereavement or Breakup: Differences in Networks of Depression. Journal of Affective Disorders. URL.
  • Aristodemou & Fried (2020). Common Factors and Interpretation of the p Factor of Psychopathology. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. PDF.
  • McWilliams & Fried (2019). Reconceptualizing adult attachment relationships: A network perspective. Personal Relationships. PDF, SM.
  • Adolf & Fried (2019). Ergodicity is sufficient but not necessary for group-to-individual generalizability. PNAS. PDF.
  • Epskamp & Fried (2018). A Tutorial on Regularized Partial Correlation Networks. Psychological Methods. PDF.
  • Mottus & Fried (2018). Same Processes, Different Outcomes. European Journal of Personality. PDF.
  • Aalbers et al. (2018). Social Media and Depression Symptoms: A Network Perspective. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. PDF.
  • Santos et al. (2018). Network Structure of Perinatal Depressive Symptoms in Latinas: Relationship to Stress-Related and Reproductive Biomarkers. Research in Nursing & Health. PDF.
  • Greene et al. (2018). Dynamic networks of PTSD symptoms during conflict. Psychological Medicine. PDF.
  • Fonseca-Pedrero et al. (2018). The network structure of schizotypal personality traits. Schizophrenia Bulletin. PDF, SM.
  • Kendler et al. (2018). The Centrality of DSM and non-DSM Depressive Symptoms in Han Chinese Women with Major Depression. Journal of Affective Disorders. PDF.
  • Epskamp, Borsboom & Fried (2018). Estimating psychological networks and their accuracy: a tutorial paper. Behavioral Research Methods. PDF, SM.
  • Santos et al. (2018). Longitudinal network structure of depression symptoms and self-efficacy in low- income mothers. PLoS ONE. PDF.
  • Mottus & Fried (2018). Same Processes, Different Outcomes. European Journal of Personality. PDF.
  • Miloyan & Fried (2017). A reassessment of the relationship between depression and all-cause mortality in 3,604,005 participants from 293 studies. World Psychiatry. PDF, SM.
  • Haslbeck & Fried (2017). How Predictable are Symptoms in Psychopathological Networks? A Reanalysis of 18 Published Datasets. Psychological Medicine. PDF SM.
  • van Loo et al. (2016). Problems with latent class analysis to detect data-driven subtypes of depression. Molecular Psychiatry. PDF.


  • Hebbrecht et al. (2020). Understanding personalized dynamics to inform precision medicine : a dynamic time warp analysis of 255 depressed inpatients. BMC Medicine. PDF.
  • Chevance et al. (2020). Identifying outcomes for depression that matter to patients, informal caregivers and healthcare professionals: qualitative content analysis of a large international online survey. Lancet Psychiatry. PDF.
  • Duek et al. (2020). Network analysis of PTSD and depressive symptoms in 158,139 treatment‐seeking veterans with PTSD. Depression & Anxiety. PDF.
  • Abend et al. (2020). A computational network perspective on pediatric anxiety symptoms. Psychological Medicine. URL.
  • Taquet et al. (2020). Mood Homeostasis Before and During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Lockdown Among Students in the Netherlands. JAMA Psychiatry. PDF.
  • Hilland et al. (2020). Exploring the links between specific depression symptoms and brain structure: A network study. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. PDF.
  • Van Eeden et al. (2020). Basal and LPS-stimulated inflammatory markers and the course of individual symptoms of depression. Translational Psychiatry. PDF.
  • Hakulinen et al. (2020). Network structure of depression symptomology in participants with and without depressive disorder: the population‑based Health 2000–2011 study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. PDF.
  • Vervaet et al. (2020). Transdiagnostic vulnerability factors in eating disorders: A network analysis. European Eating Disorder Review.
  • Morvan, Fried, & Chevance (2020). Network modeling in psychopathology: hopes and challenges. Encéphale. PDF.
  • De Ron, Fried, & Epskamp (2019). Psychological networks in clinical populations: investigating the consequences of Berkson’s bias. Psychological Medicine. PDF.
  • Jongeneel et al. (2019). A time-series network approach to auditory verbal hallucinations: Examining dynamic interactions using experience sampling methodology. Schizophrenia Research. PDF.
  • Waszczuk et al. (2019). Redefining phenotypes to advance psychiatric genetics: Implications from hierarchical taxonomy of psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. PDF.
  • Lin, Fried, & Eaton (2019). The association of life stress with substance use symptoms: A network analysis and replication. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. PDF.
  • Conway et al. (2019). A Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology Can Transform Mental Health Research. Perspectives on Psychological Science. PDF.
  • Greene et al. (2019). Are Fit Indices Used to Test Psychopathology Structure Biased? A Simulation Study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. PDF.
  • Fritz et al. (2019). Unravelling the Complex Nature of Resilience Factors and their Changes between Early and Later Adolescence. BMC Medicine. PDF.
  • Greene et al. (2019). Dynamic Network Analysis of Negative Emotions and DSM‐5 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Clusters During Conflict. Journal of Traumatic Stress. PDF.
  • De Beurs et al. (2019). Exploring the psychology of suicidal ideation: A theory driven network analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy. PDF.
  • Heino et al. (2019). Visualisation and network analysis of physical activity and its determinants: Demonstrating opportunities in analysing baseline associations in the let’s move it trial. Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine . PDF.
  • Hartung et al. (2019). Frequency and network analysis of depressive symptoms in patients with cancer compared to the general population. Journal of Affective Disorders. PDF.
  • De Haan et al. (2019). Dysfunctional posttraumatic cognitions, posttraumatic stress, and depression in children and adolescents exposed to trauma: A network analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. PDF.
  • Faelens et al. (2019). Negative influences of Facebook use through the lens of network analysis. Computers in Human Behavior. PDF.
  • Molendijk, Fried & van der Does (2018). The SMILES trial: do undisclosed recruitment practices explain the remarkably large effect? BMC Medicine. PDF.
  • Briganti, Fried & Linkowski (2018). Network analysis of Contingencies of Self-Worth Scale in 680 university students. Psychiatry Research. PDF.
  • Epskamp et al. (2018). Investigating the Utility of Fixed-Margin Sampling in Network Psychometrics. Multivariate Behavioral Research. PDF.
  • Fritz et al. (2018). A Network Model of Resilience Factors for Adolescents with and without Exposure to Childhood Adversity. Scientific Reports. PDF.
  • Rodebaugh et al. (2018). Does centrality in a cross-sectional network suggest intervention targets for social anxiety disorder? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. PDF.
  • Rouquette et al. (2018). Emotional and Behavioral Symptom Network Structure in Elementary School Girls and Association With Anxiety Disorders and Depression in Adolescence and Early Adulthood — A Network Analysis. JAMA Psychiatry. PDF.
  • Borsboom et al. (2018). Robustness and replicability of psychopathology networks. World Psychiatry. PDF.
  • Briganti et al. (2018). Network analysis of empathy items from the Interpersonal Reactivity Index in 1973 young adults. Psychiatry Research. PDF.
  • Bos et al. (2018). Cross-sectional networks of depressive symptoms before and after antidepressant medication treatment. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. PDF.
  • von Stockert et al. (2018). Evaluating the stability of DSM-5 PTSD symptom network structure in a national sample of U.S. military veterans. Journal of Affective Disorders. PDF, SM.
  • van Loo et al. (2018). Robust symptom networks in recurrent major depression across different levels of genetic and environmental risk. Journal of Affective Disorders. PDF.
  • Borsboom et al. (2017). False alarm? A comprehensive reanalysis of “Evidence that psychopathology symptom networks have limited replicability” by Forbes, Wright, Markon, and Krueger (2017). Journal of Abnormal Psychology. URL.
  • Schweren et al. (2017). Assessment of Symptom Network Density as a Prognostic Marker of Treatment Response in Adolescent Depression. JAMA Psychiatry. PDF.
  • Murphy et al. (2017). Distress, impairment and the extended psychosis phenotype: A network analysis of psychotic experiences in a US general population sample. Schizophrenia Bulletin. PDF.
  • Dejonckheere et al. (2017). Perceiving social pressure not to feel negative predicts depressive symptoms in daily life. Depression and Anxiety. PDF.
  • Heino, Fried & LeBel, E. P. (2017). Commentary: Reproducibility in Psychological Science:When Do Psychological Phenomena Exist? Frontiers in Psychology, 8(1004). PDF.
  • Beard et al. (2016). Network Analysis of Depression and Anxiety Symptom Relations in a Psychiatric Sample. Psychological Medicine. PDF.
  • Heylen et al. (2016). Two-mode K-Spectral Centroid analysis for studying multivariate time profiles. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems. PDF.
  • Costantini et al. (2015). Development of Indirect Measures of Conscientiousness: Combining a Facets Approach and Network Analysis. European Journal of Personality. PDF.

Book chapters & dissertation

  • Fried (2017). Psychopathological Networks. In A. E. Wenzel (Ed.), The SAGE Encyclopedia of Abnormal and Clinical Psychology. New York, NY: SAGE Publications. PDF.
  • Fried (2017). Zung Depression Scale. In A. E. Wenzel (Ed.), The SAGE Encyclopedia of Abnormal and Clinical Psychology. New York, NY: SAGE Publications.
  • Dejonckheere & Fried (2017). Bereavement. In V. Zeigler-Hill & T. Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences. Preprint.
  • Fried (2014). Covert Heterogeneity of Major Depressive Disorder: Depression Is More Than the Sum-Score of its Symptoms. Dissertation. PDF.


  • Epskamp & Fried (2016). bootnet: Bootstrap Methods for Various Network Estimation Routines. Package for the free statistical environment R (CRAN).

Magazine articles

  • Harris et al. (2019). Hacking APS. The Observer, published by the Association for Psychological Science.
  • Fried & Flake (2018). Measurement Matters. The Observer, published by the Association for Psychological Science.
  • Fried (2016). Depressionsforschung im Stimmungstief – Gründe einer wissenschaftlichen Krise und mögliche Auswege. In-Mind.
  • Fried, Dejonckheere & Tuerlinckx (2016). Welke symptomen zijn het meest belangrijk bij depressie? Een netwerkanalyse van depressie. Neuron, Vol. 21 Nr. 6. (Dutch PDF) (French PDF)
  • Fried (2015). Depression — more than the sum of its symptoms. The Psychologist (British Psychological Society).

Other blog posts

Silly publications

  • Fried (2016). True facts about the giant sequoia, or: what kind of name is sequoiadendron giganteum. Science Creative Quarterly.

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